[Talk-it] rimozione costa concordia

Martin Koppenhoefer dieterdreist a gmail.com
Mer 18 Gen 2012 15:48:00 GMT


2012/1/18 Volker Schmidt <voschix at gmail.com>:
> C'č un tag adatto:
> barrier=shipwreck


che vuol dire, "c'č"? Ci sono, ne sono 2 nel database.
Di historic=wreck ci sono 659 perņ.

Secondome non si guadagna niente aggiungendo un altro sinonimo non
generalmente usato.


> NB:
> shipwreck č il termine giusto. "wreck" č sbagliato secondo  me.
> Verificherņ domani su wikipedia


Scusami Volker, ma perchč la wikipedia dovrebbe saperlo meglio di un
dizionario? Tutti possono scrivere qualsiasi cosa in wikipedia, e
quello che scrivono non ci cambia niente rispetto al significato dei
nostri tags (puņ essere un indicatore, ma se abbiamo un tag ben
stabilito e documentato da anni, perchč metterlo in dubbio se la
parola esiste pure e sembra di avere quel significato?). Come sai
anche in tedesco si puņ dire "Schiffswrack"=shipwreck e "Wrack"=wreck,
e anche in tedesco Wrack si puņ riferire oltre ai navi anche ai
aeroplani, (a dirittura anche a persone).

Abbiamo da anni documentazione cosa significa historic=wreck in OSM, e
cambiarla non ha molto senso secondome:
http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Tag:historic%3Dwreck

ciao,
Martin


PS: per completezza, questo č la pagina di wikipedia:
Wreck
>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
	 Look up wreck in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wreck may refer to:
Wreck, a ceremony of initiation into the 40 et 8 club
Wreck (band) , an American indie rock band
A collision of an automobile, aircraft or other vehicle
Shipwreck , the remains of a ship after a crisis at sea
Receiver of Wreck , an official of the British government whose main
task is to process incoming reports of wreck
Rambling Wreck , a car that leads the Georgia Tech football team onto
the field prior to every game in Bobby Dodd Stadium
WREK (FM) , a radio station at Georgia Tech, named after the car
In ornithology , an event where large numbers of seabirds are driven
inland due to adverse weather


poi questo č shipwreck (nota bene che usino sia "shipwreck" che
"wreck" nello stesso senso):
Shipwreck
>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the event of a ship wrecking, see Shipwreck (accident) .
For other uses, see Shipwreck (disambiguation) .


Shipwreck of the SS American Star on the shore of Fuerteventura .
A shipwreck is what remains of a ship that has wrecked, either sunk or
beached. Whatever the cause, a sunken ship or a wrecked ship is a
physical example of the event : this explains why the two concepts are
often overlapping in English . [ 1 ]
The United Nations estimates that there are more than 3 million
shipwrecks on the ocean floor. [ 2 ]
Contents  [hide]
1 Types of shipwrecks
2 Causes
3 State of preservation
3.1 Construction materials
3.2 Salinity of water
3.3 Loss, salvage and demolition
3.4 Depth, tide and weather
3.5 Temperature
4 Salvage of wrecks
4.1 Shipwrecks and the law
4.2 Notable salvage of shipwrecks
5 References
6 See also
7 External links
Types of shipwrecks



The 1626 Sparrow-Hawk wreck is displayed at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in
Plymouth, Massachusetts
Historic wrecks are attractive to maritime archaeologists because they
preserve historical information: for example, studying the wreck of
Mary Rose revealed information about seafaring, warfare and life in
the 16th century. Military wrecks that were caused by a skirmish at
sea are studied to find details about the historic event and reveal
much about the battle that occurred. Discoveries of treasure ships ,
often from the period of European colonisation , which sank in remote
places, leaving few living witnesses, such as the Batavia , do occur
but only very infrequently.
Some contemporary wrecks, such as the Prestige or Erika , are of
interest primarily because of the potential harm to the environment.
Other contemporary wrecks are scuttled in order to spur reef growth,
such as Adolphus Busch and the Ocean Freeze . Wrecks like Adolphus
Busch and many historic wrecks such as SS Thistlegorm are of interest
to recreational divers who enjoy diving shipwrecks because they are
often interesting to explore, provide large habitats for many types of
marine life and have an interesting history.
Very few shipwrecks are famous catastrophes like the wrecks of the
Titanic , Britannic , Lusitania or Estonia . There are also thousands
of wrecks that were not lost at sea but have been abandoned or sunk.
These are typically smaller vessels such as fishing vessels. These
vessels can provide an interesting recreational dive but are usually
of little interest to historians. They may pose a hazard to navigation
and may be removed by port authorities . These vessels are sometimes
referred to as abandoned or derelicts. [ citation needed ] . [ 1 ]
There are more than 3 million wrecks on the ocean floor, the United
Nations estimates. [ 2 ]
Causes

Main article: Shipwreck (accident)
Poor design, improperly stowed cargo , navigation and other human
errors leading to collisions (with another ship, the shoreline, an
iceberg, etc.), bad weather, fire , and other causes can lead to
accidental sinkings. Intentional reasons for sinking a ship include
forming an artificial reef ; due to warfare , piracy , mutiny or
sabotage ; as part of target practice ; or to remove a menace to
navigation.
State of preservation



The Vasa is one of the oldest and most well-preserved ships salvaged
in the world, owed to the cool temperatures and low salinity of the
Baltic Sea
Many factors determine the state of preservation of a wreck:
the ship's construction materials
the wreck becoming covered in sand or silt
the salinity of the water the wreck is in
the level of destruction involved in the ship's loss
whether the components or cargo of the wreck were salvaged
whether the wreck was demolished to clear a navigable channel
the depth of water at the wreck site
the strength of tidal currents or wave action at the wreck site
the exposure to surface weather conditions at the wreck site
the presence of marine animals that consume the ship's fabric
temperature
the acidity (or pH ), and other chemical characteristics of the water
at the site
The above mentioned, especially the stratification (silt/sand
sediments piled up on the shipwrecks) and the damages caused by marine
creatures is better described as "stratification and contamination" of
shipwrecks. The stratification not only creates another challenge for
marine archaeology but also a challenge to its primary state, the
state that it had when it sank.
Stratification includes several different types of sand and/or silt,
as well as tumulus and encrustations. In addition to these, these
"sediments" are tightly linked to the type of currents, depth, and the
type of water (salinity, pH, etc.), which implies any chemical
reactions that would lead to affecting the hypothetical/possible main
cargo (such as wine, olive oil, spices, etc.).
Besides this geological phenomenon, wrecks also face the damage of
marine creatures that create a home out of them; primarily being
octopuses and crustaceans. These creatures affect the primary state
because they move, or break, any parts of the shipwreck that are in
their way, thereby affecting the original condition of amphorae, for
example, or any other hollow places. Finally, in addition to the
slight or severe destruction marine animals can create, there are also
"external" contaminants, such as modern-day commodities, or
contemporary pollution in bodies of water, that as well severely
affect shipwrecks by changing the chemical structures, or even
destroying or devastating even more of what is left of a specific
ship.
All the above offers great challenges to the marine archaeologist when
attempting to bind the pieces of a certain shipwreck together. However
and despite these challenges, even if the information retrieved does
not appear to be sufficient, or a poor preservation is achieved,
authors like JA Parker, claim that it is the historical value of the
shipwreck that counts, as well as any slight piece of information
and/or evidence that is acquired. [ 3 ]
Construction materials
Exposed wooden components decay quickly. Often the only wooden parts
of ships that remain after a century are those that were buried in
silt or sand soon after the sinking. An example of this is the Mary
Rose .
Steel and iron , depending on their thickness, may retain the ship's
structure for decades. As corrosion takes place, sometimes helped by
tides and weather, the structure collapses. Thick ferrous objects like
cannons , steam boilers or the pressure vessel of a submarine often
survive well underwater in spite of corrosion.
Propellers , condensers , hinges and port holes were often made from
non-ferrous metals such as brass and phosphor bronze , which do not
corrode easily.
Salinity of water
Wrecks typically decay rapidly when in seawater . There are several
reasons for this:
Iron -based metals corrode much more quickly in seawater because of
the dissolved salt present; the sodium and chloride ions chemically
accelerate the process of metal oxidation which, in the case of
ferrous metals, leads to rust .
Bacteria found in fresh water cause the wood on ships to rot more
quickly than in seawater unless it's deprived of oxygen. Unprotected
wood in seawater is rapidly consumed by shipworms and small
wood-boring sea creatures. [ citation needed ]
Shipworms found in higher salinity waters, such as the Caribbean are
notorious for boring into wooden structures that are immersed in sea
water and can completely destroy the hull of a wooden shipwreck. [ 4 ]
Shipwrecks in some freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes of North
America, have remained intact with little degradation. In some sea
areas, most notably in Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland , salinity
is very low, and centuries-old wrecks have been preserved in
reasonable condition.
Loss, salvage and demolition
An important factor in the condition of the wreck is the level of
destruction at the time of the loss or shortly afterwards due to the
nature of the loss, salvage or later demolition.
Examples of severe destruction at the time of loss are:
being blown onto a beach, reef or rocks during a storm (eg Royal Adelaide )
collision with another ship (eg SS Andrea Doria )
a catastrophic explosion (eg HMS Hood )
a fire that burns for a long time before the ships sinks (eg MS Achille Lauro )
After the loss the owners of the ship may attempt to salvage valuable
parts of the ship or its cargo - this operation can cause damage.
Shipwrecks in shallow water near busy shipping lanes are often
demolished to reduce the danger to other vessels.
Depth, tide and weather
On the seabed, wrecks are slowly broken up by the forces of wave
action caused by the weather and currents caused by tides . Also more
highly oxygenated water, which promotes corrosion , reduces the
strength of ferrous structural materials of the ship. Deeper wrecks
are likely to be protected by less exposure to water movement and by
lower levels of oxygen in water.
Temperature
Extreme cold (such as in a glacial-fed lake) can lead to slow
degradation of organic ship materials [ vague ] .
Salvage of wrecks



Shipwreck at Ocean Beach, San Francisco
Often, attempts are made to salvage recently wrecked ships to recover
the whole or part of the ship, its cargo, or its equipment. A good
example of this was the scuttling and subsequent salvage of the German
High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow in the 1920s. The unauthorized salvage
of wrecks is called wrecking .
Shipwrecks and the law
Shipwreck law determines important legal questions regarding wrecks,
perhaps the most important question being the question of ownership.
Legally wrecks are divided into wreccum maris (material washed ashore
after a shipwreck) and adventurae maris (material still at sea); [ 5 ]
although some legal systems treat the two categories differently,
others treat them the same.
Wrecks are often considered separately from their cargo. For example,
in the English case of the Lusitania [1986] QB 384 it was accepted
that the remains of the vessel itself were owned by the insurance
underwriters who had paid out on the vessel as a total loss by virtue
of the law of subrogation (who subsequently sold their rights), but
that the property aboard the wreck still belonged to its original
owners (or their descendants).
Military wrecks, however, remain under the jurisdiction–and hence
protection–of the government that lost the ship, or that government's
successor. Hence, a German U-boat from World War II still technically
belongs to the German government, even though the Third Reich is
long-defunct. Many military wrecks are also protected by virtue of
their being war graves .
However, many legal systems allow the rights of salvors to override
the rights of the original owners of a wreck or its cargo. As a
general rule, non-historic civilian shipwrecks are considered fair
game for salvage. Under international maritime law , for shipwrecks of
a certain age, the original owner may have lost all claim to the
cargo. Anyone who finds the wreck can then file a salvage claim on it
and place a lien on the vessel, and subsequently mount a salvage
operation (see Finders, keepers ). [ citation needed ]
Some countries assert claims to all wrecks within their territorial
waters, irrespective of the interest of the original owner or the
salvor. [ 6 ] Wartime wrecks have different legal considerations, as
they are often considered prizes of war , and therefore owned by the
Navy that sunk them.


MSC Napoli beached off Branscombe
Some legal systems regard a wreck (and/or its cargo) to be abandoned
if no attempt is made to salvage them within a certain period of time.
English law has usually resisted this notion (encouraged by an
extremely large maritime insurance industry, which asserts claims in
respect of shipwrecks which it has paid claims on), but is has been
accepted to a greater or lesser degree in an Australian case [ 7 ] and
in a Norwegian case. [ 8 ] The American courts have been inconsistent
between states and at Federal level. [ 9 ] Under Danish law, all
shipwrecks over 150 years old belong to the state if no owner can be
found. In Spain, wrecks vest in the state if not salvaged within 3
years. In Finland, all property on board shipwrecks over 100 years old
vests in the state.
The British Protection of Wrecks Act , enacted to protect historic
wrecks, controls access to wrecks such as Cattewater Wreck which can
only be visited or investigated under licence. The British Protection
of Military Remains Act 1986 also restricts access to wrecks which are
sensitive as war graves . The Protection of Military Remains Act in
some cases creates a blanket ban on all diving; for other wrecks
divers may visit provided they do not touch, interfere with or
penetrate the wreck. In the United States, shipwrecks in state waters
are regulated by the Abandoned Shipwrecks Act of 1987. This act is
much more lenient in allowing more open access to the shipwrecks.
Following the beaching of the MSC Napoli , as a result of severe
damage incurred during European storm Kyrill , there was confusion in
the press and by the authorities about whether people could be
prevented from helping themselves to the flotsam which was washed up
on the beaches at Branscombe . Many people took advantage of the
confusion and helped themselves to the cargo. This included many BMW
motorbikes and empty wine casks as well as bags of disposable nappies
( diapers ). [ 10 ] The legal position under the Merchant Shipping Act
1995 is that any such finds and recovery must be reported within 28
days to the Receiver of Wreck . [ 11 ] Failure to do so is an offence
under the Merchant Shipping Act and can result in a criminal record
for theft by finding . [ 12 ] After several days, the police and
Receiver of Wreck, in conjunction with the landowner and the
contracted salvors , established a cordon to prevent access to the
beach. [ 13 ] A similar situation occurred after the wreck of the MV
Cita in 1997.
Historic wrecks (often but not always defined as being more than 50
years of age) are often protected from pillaging and looting through
national laws protecting cultural heritage. [ 14 ] Internationally
they may be protected by a State ratifying the Unesco Convention on
the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage . In this case
pillaging is not allowed.
An important international convention aiming at the protection of
underwater cultural heritage (including shipwrecks) is the Convention
on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. [ 15 ] The 2001
UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural
Heritage represents the international community's response to the
increasing looting and destruction of underwater cultural heritage. It
forms part of a group of UNESCO standard setting instruments regarding
the domain of cultural heritage, encompassing seven conventions
adopted by UNESCO Member States, which constitute a coherent and
complementary body guaranteeing a complete protection of all forms of
cultural heritage.
The UNESCO 2001 Convention is an international treaty aimed
exclusively at the protection of underwater cultural heritage and the
facilitation of international cooperation in this regard. It does not
change sovereignty rights of States or regulate the ownership of
wrecks or submerged ruins.
Notable salvage of shipwrecks
In 2011, the most valuable cargo of a sunken shipwreck was identified
near the western edge of the Celtic Sea . This World War II era
sinking of the SS Gairsoppa led to a treasure almost three miles deep.
[ 16 ]
References

^ a b Scurvy, Death and Cannibalism (internet video). Shipwreck Central. 2007 .
^ a b Arango, Tim (2007-09-11). "Curse of the $500 million sunken
treasure" . Retrieved 2009-09-19 .
^ Parker, AJ (1981). "Stratification and contamination in ancient
Mediterranean shipwrecks.". The International Journal of Nautical
Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 10 : 309–335.
^ "Ethics in Underwater Archaeology" . knol.google.com. Retrieved 2010-12-13 .
^ For example, under English law the former were dealt with under
rules relating to things found on land, the latter were dealt with
under Admiralty jurisdiction.
^ For example, the US Abandoned Shipwrecks Act 1987 and the Spanish
Estatuto No 60/62, 24 December 1962
^ Robinson v Western Australian Museum (1977) 51 ALJR 806 at 820-821,
although significantly the court held that it had not been abandoned
despite the fact the ship, the Gilt Dragon , was lost in 1656.
^ N. Rt. 346 (1970 ND 107), per Eckhoff J. ( Supreme Court of Norway
), "It is possible that an owner's inactivity over a long period of
time, taking into account the circumstances, can be sufficient reason
for considering that the proprietary right to the wrecked vessel has
been relinquished. ... [But] inactivity over a certain number of years
cannot in itself be conclusive."
^ In Treasure Salvors Inc. v Unidentified Wreck [1978] AMC 1404,
[1981] AMC 1857 relating to the Atocha the courts treated the wreck
and cargo as abandoned, arguing it would be an "absurd fiction" to
regard a centuries-old shipwreck as still owned by the original owner.
But in Columbus America Discovery Groupo v Unidentified Wreck [1990]
AMC 2409, (1992) 337 LMNL 1 the courts were prepared to uphold the
claims of the original insurers to the cargo subject to their
providing the necessary proof, which they were unable to do.
^ "UK | England | Devon | Napoli 'scavenging' beach to open" . BBC
News. 2007-03-14 . Retrieved 2009-09-19 .
^ http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga-newsroom/incident/dops_-_hq-napoli_15_february_.htm
^ "BBC Radio World Service Broadcast, "What Lies Beneath" First
broadcast Friday 22 August 2008" . Bbc.co.uk. 2008-08-22 . Retrieved
2009-09-19 .
^ "UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural
Heritage" . Retrieved 2009-09-19 .
^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. SS Gairsoppa recovery . Topic ed.P.Saundry.
Ed.-in-chief CJCleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for
Science and the Environment, Washington DC
See also



Shipwreck on a shore near Gytheio , Greece .


The ferry Assalama wrecked off of Tarfaya , Morocco .
Shipwreck (accident)
Hulk (ship)
Abandoned Shipwrecks Act
Flotsam and jetsam
Sinking ships for wreck diving sites
Underwater archaeology
Wreck diving
External links

	 Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Shipwrecks
WRECKSITE Worldwide free database of + 105.000 wrecks with history,
maritime charts and GPS positions (English) (German) (French) (Dutch)
(Spanish)
UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage
More than 3 million shipwrecks rest beneath the world's waters
Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime Program (LAMP), St. Augustine, Florida
National Underwater and Marine Agency
Florida Shipwrecks: 300 years of Maritime History, a National Park
Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
Straits of Mackinac Shipwreck Preserve
BSAC List of wrecks on the UK South coast with GPS co-ords
Website of The Elizabethan wreck off the island of Alderney, Channel Islands
Above and Underwater virtual tour of a ship (the Buccaneer) sank in
2010 in Lake Michigan as an artificial reef
The Sea Hunt Case : An Extraordinary Legal Fiction



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