[Talk-it] rimozione costa concordia
voschix a gmail.com
Mer 18 Gen 2012 15:55:23 GMT
Hai perfettamente ragione - wreck è normalmente utilizzato per shpiwreck.
Il mio discorso era più sul'aspetto "historic", che no n lo è (ancora).
Preferirei "barrier", ma non è una cosa di grande importanza. E dimenticavo
dire, che, si, sono in favore di lasciarlo sulla mappa, naturalmente.
On 18 January 2012 16:48, Martin Koppenhoefer <dieterdreist a gmail.com>wrote:
> 2012/1/18 Volker Schmidt <voschix a gmail.com>:
> > C'è un tag adatto:
> > barrier=shipwreck
> che vuol dire, "c'è"? Ci sono, ne sono 2 nel database.
> Di historic=wreck ci sono 659 però.
> Secondome non si guadagna niente aggiungendo un altro sinonimo non
> generalmente usato.
> > NB:
> > shipwreck è il termine giusto. "wreck" è sbagliato secondo me.
> > Verificherò domani su wikipedia
> Scusami Volker, ma perchè la wikipedia dovrebbe saperlo meglio di un
> dizionario? Tutti possono scrivere qualsiasi cosa in wikipedia, e
> quello che scrivono non ci cambia niente rispetto al significato dei
> nostri tags (può essere un indicatore, ma se abbiamo un tag ben
> stabilito e documentato da anni, perchè metterlo in dubbio se la
> parola esiste pure e sembra di avere quel significato?). Come sai
> anche in tedesco si può dire "Schiffswrack"=shipwreck e "Wrack"=wreck,
> e anche in tedesco Wrack si può riferire oltre ai navi anche ai
> aeroplani, (a dirittura anche a persone).
> Abbiamo da anni documentazione cosa significa historic=wreck in OSM, e
> cambiarla non ha molto senso secondome:
> PS: per completezza, questo è la pagina di wikipedia:
> From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
> Look up wreck in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
> Wreck may refer to:
> Wreck, a ceremony of initiation into the 40 et 8 club
> Wreck (band) , an American indie rock band
> A collision of an automobile, aircraft or other vehicle
> Shipwreck , the remains of a ship after a crisis at sea
> Receiver of Wreck , an official of the British government whose main
> task is to process incoming reports of wreck
> Rambling Wreck , a car that leads the Georgia Tech football team onto
> the field prior to every game in Bobby Dodd Stadium
> WREK (FM) , a radio station at Georgia Tech, named after the car
> In ornithology , an event where large numbers of seabirds are driven
> inland due to adverse weather
> poi questo è shipwreck (nota bene che usino sia "shipwreck" che
> "wreck" nello stesso senso):
> From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
> For the event of a ship wrecking, see Shipwreck (accident) .
> For other uses, see Shipwreck (disambiguation) .
> Shipwreck of the SS American Star on the shore of Fuerteventura .
> A shipwreck is what remains of a ship that has wrecked, either sunk or
> beached. Whatever the cause, a sunken ship or a wrecked ship is a
> physical example of the event : this explains why the two concepts are
> often overlapping in English . [ 1 ]
> The United Nations estimates that there are more than 3 million
> shipwrecks on the ocean floor. [ 2 ]
> Contents [hide]
> 1 Types of shipwrecks
> 2 Causes
> 3 State of preservation
> 3.1 Construction materials
> 3.2 Salinity of water
> 3.3 Loss, salvage and demolition
> 3.4 Depth, tide and weather
> 3.5 Temperature
> 4 Salvage of wrecks
> 4.1 Shipwrecks and the law
> 4.2 Notable salvage of shipwrecks
> 5 References
> 6 See also
> 7 External links
> Types of shipwrecks
> The 1626 Sparrow-Hawk wreck is displayed at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in
> Plymouth, Massachusetts
> Historic wrecks are attractive to maritime archaeologists because they
> preserve historical information: for example, studying the wreck of
> Mary Rose revealed information about seafaring, warfare and life in
> the 16th century. Military wrecks that were caused by a skirmish at
> sea are studied to find details about the historic event and reveal
> much about the battle that occurred. Discoveries of treasure ships ,
> often from the period of European colonisation , which sank in remote
> places, leaving few living witnesses, such as the Batavia , do occur
> but only very infrequently.
> Some contemporary wrecks, such as the Prestige or Erika , are of
> interest primarily because of the potential harm to the environment.
> Other contemporary wrecks are scuttled in order to spur reef growth,
> such as Adolphus Busch and the Ocean Freeze . Wrecks like Adolphus
> Busch and many historic wrecks such as SS Thistlegorm are of interest
> to recreational divers who enjoy diving shipwrecks because they are
> often interesting to explore, provide large habitats for many types of
> marine life and have an interesting history.
> Very few shipwrecks are famous catastrophes like the wrecks of the
> Titanic , Britannic , Lusitania or Estonia . There are also thousands
> of wrecks that were not lost at sea but have been abandoned or sunk.
> These are typically smaller vessels such as fishing vessels. These
> vessels can provide an interesting recreational dive but are usually
> of little interest to historians. They may pose a hazard to navigation
> and may be removed by port authorities . These vessels are sometimes
> referred to as abandoned or derelicts. [ citation needed ] . [ 1 ]
> There are more than 3 million wrecks on the ocean floor, the United
> Nations estimates. [ 2 ]
> Main article: Shipwreck (accident)
> Poor design, improperly stowed cargo , navigation and other human
> errors leading to collisions (with another ship, the shoreline, an
> iceberg, etc.), bad weather, fire , and other causes can lead to
> accidental sinkings. Intentional reasons for sinking a ship include
> forming an artificial reef ; due to warfare , piracy , mutiny or
> sabotage ; as part of target practice ; or to remove a menace to
> State of preservation
> The Vasa is one of the oldest and most well-preserved ships salvaged
> in the world, owed to the cool temperatures and low salinity of the
> Baltic Sea
> Many factors determine the state of preservation of a wreck:
> the ship's construction materials
> the wreck becoming covered in sand or silt
> the salinity of the water the wreck is in
> the level of destruction involved in the ship's loss
> whether the components or cargo of the wreck were salvaged
> whether the wreck was demolished to clear a navigable channel
> the depth of water at the wreck site
> the strength of tidal currents or wave action at the wreck site
> the exposure to surface weather conditions at the wreck site
> the presence of marine animals that consume the ship's fabric
> the acidity (or pH ), and other chemical characteristics of the water
> at the site
> The above mentioned, especially the stratification (silt/sand
> sediments piled up on the shipwrecks) and the damages caused by marine
> creatures is better described as "stratification and contamination" of
> shipwrecks. The stratification not only creates another challenge for
> marine archaeology but also a challenge to its primary state, the
> state that it had when it sank.
> Stratification includes several different types of sand and/or silt,
> as well as tumulus and encrustations. In addition to these, these
> "sediments" are tightly linked to the type of currents, depth, and the
> type of water (salinity, pH, etc.), which implies any chemical
> reactions that would lead to affecting the hypothetical/possible main
> cargo (such as wine, olive oil, spices, etc.).
> Besides this geological phenomenon, wrecks also face the damage of
> marine creatures that create a home out of them; primarily being
> octopuses and crustaceans. These creatures affect the primary state
> because they move, or break, any parts of the shipwreck that are in
> their way, thereby affecting the original condition of amphorae, for
> example, or any other hollow places. Finally, in addition to the
> slight or severe destruction marine animals can create, there are also
> "external" contaminants, such as modern-day commodities, or
> contemporary pollution in bodies of water, that as well severely
> affect shipwrecks by changing the chemical structures, or even
> destroying or devastating even more of what is left of a specific
> All the above offers great challenges to the marine archaeologist when
> attempting to bind the pieces of a certain shipwreck together. However
> and despite these challenges, even if the information retrieved does
> not appear to be sufficient, or a poor preservation is achieved,
> authors like JA Parker, claim that it is the historical value of the
> shipwreck that counts, as well as any slight piece of information
> and/or evidence that is acquired. [ 3 ]
> Construction materials
> Exposed wooden components decay quickly. Often the only wooden parts
> of ships that remain after a century are those that were buried in
> silt or sand soon after the sinking. An example of this is the Mary
> Rose .
> Steel and iron , depending on their thickness, may retain the ship's
> structure for decades. As corrosion takes place, sometimes helped by
> tides and weather, the structure collapses. Thick ferrous objects like
> cannons , steam boilers or the pressure vessel of a submarine often
> survive well underwater in spite of corrosion.
> Propellers , condensers , hinges and port holes were often made from
> non-ferrous metals such as brass and phosphor bronze , which do not
> corrode easily.
> Salinity of water
> Wrecks typically decay rapidly when in seawater . There are several
> reasons for this:
> Iron -based metals corrode much more quickly in seawater because of
> the dissolved salt present; the sodium and chloride ions chemically
> accelerate the process of metal oxidation which, in the case of
> ferrous metals, leads to rust .
> Bacteria found in fresh water cause the wood on ships to rot more
> quickly than in seawater unless it's deprived of oxygen. Unprotected
> wood in seawater is rapidly consumed by shipworms and small
> wood-boring sea creatures. [ citation needed ]
> Shipworms found in higher salinity waters, such as the Caribbean are
> notorious for boring into wooden structures that are immersed in sea
> water and can completely destroy the hull of a wooden shipwreck. [ 4 ]
> Shipwrecks in some freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes of North
> America, have remained intact with little degradation. In some sea
> areas, most notably in Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland , salinity
> is very low, and centuries-old wrecks have been preserved in
> reasonable condition.
> Loss, salvage and demolition
> An important factor in the condition of the wreck is the level of
> destruction at the time of the loss or shortly afterwards due to the
> nature of the loss, salvage or later demolition.
> Examples of severe destruction at the time of loss are:
> being blown onto a beach, reef or rocks during a storm (eg Royal Adelaide )
> collision with another ship (eg SS Andrea Doria )
> a catastrophic explosion (eg HMS Hood )
> a fire that burns for a long time before the ships sinks (eg MS Achille
> Lauro )
> After the loss the owners of the ship may attempt to salvage valuable
> parts of the ship or its cargo - this operation can cause damage.
> Shipwrecks in shallow water near busy shipping lanes are often
> demolished to reduce the danger to other vessels.
> Depth, tide and weather
> On the seabed, wrecks are slowly broken up by the forces of wave
> action caused by the weather and currents caused by tides . Also more
> highly oxygenated water, which promotes corrosion , reduces the
> strength of ferrous structural materials of the ship. Deeper wrecks
> are likely to be protected by less exposure to water movement and by
> lower levels of oxygen in water.
> Extreme cold (such as in a glacial-fed lake) can lead to slow
> degradation of organic ship materials [ vague ] .
> Salvage of wrecks
> Shipwreck at Ocean Beach, San Francisco
> Often, attempts are made to salvage recently wrecked ships to recover
> the whole or part of the ship, its cargo, or its equipment. A good
> example of this was the scuttling and subsequent salvage of the German
> High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow in the 1920s. The unauthorized salvage
> of wrecks is called wrecking .
> Shipwrecks and the law
> Shipwreck law determines important legal questions regarding wrecks,
> perhaps the most important question being the question of ownership.
> Legally wrecks are divided into wreccum maris (material washed ashore
> after a shipwreck) and adventurae maris (material still at sea); [ 5 ]
> although some legal systems treat the two categories differently,
> others treat them the same.
> Wrecks are often considered separately from their cargo. For example,
> in the English case of the Lusitania  QB 384 it was accepted
> that the remains of the vessel itself were owned by the insurance
> underwriters who had paid out on the vessel as a total loss by virtue
> of the law of subrogation (who subsequently sold their rights), but
> that the property aboard the wreck still belonged to its original
> owners (or their descendants).
> Military wrecks, however, remain under the jurisdiction–and hence
> protection–of the government that lost the ship, or that government's
> successor. Hence, a German U-boat from World War II still technically
> belongs to the German government, even though the Third Reich is
> long-defunct. Many military wrecks are also protected by virtue of
> their being war graves .
> However, many legal systems allow the rights of salvors to override
> the rights of the original owners of a wreck or its cargo. As a
> general rule, non-historic civilian shipwrecks are considered fair
> game for salvage. Under international maritime law , for shipwrecks of
> a certain age, the original owner may have lost all claim to the
> cargo. Anyone who finds the wreck can then file a salvage claim on it
> and place a lien on the vessel, and subsequently mount a salvage
> operation (see Finders, keepers ). [ citation needed ]
> Some countries assert claims to all wrecks within their territorial
> waters, irrespective of the interest of the original owner or the
> salvor. [ 6 ] Wartime wrecks have different legal considerations, as
> they are often considered prizes of war , and therefore owned by the
> Navy that sunk them.
> MSC Napoli beached off Branscombe
> Some legal systems regard a wreck (and/or its cargo) to be abandoned
> if no attempt is made to salvage them within a certain period of time.
> English law has usually resisted this notion (encouraged by an
> extremely large maritime insurance industry, which asserts claims in
> respect of shipwrecks which it has paid claims on), but is has been
> accepted to a greater or lesser degree in an Australian case [ 7 ] and
> in a Norwegian case. [ 8 ] The American courts have been inconsistent
> between states and at Federal level. [ 9 ] Under Danish law, all
> shipwrecks over 150 years old belong to the state if no owner can be
> found. In Spain, wrecks vest in the state if not salvaged within 3
> years. In Finland, all property on board shipwrecks over 100 years old
> vests in the state.
> The British Protection of Wrecks Act , enacted to protect historic
> wrecks, controls access to wrecks such as Cattewater Wreck which can
> only be visited or investigated under licence. The British Protection
> of Military Remains Act 1986 also restricts access to wrecks which are
> sensitive as war graves . The Protection of Military Remains Act in
> some cases creates a blanket ban on all diving; for other wrecks
> divers may visit provided they do not touch, interfere with or
> penetrate the wreck. In the United States, shipwrecks in state waters
> are regulated by the Abandoned Shipwrecks Act of 1987. This act is
> much more lenient in allowing more open access to the shipwrecks.
> Following the beaching of the MSC Napoli , as a result of severe
> damage incurred during European storm Kyrill , there was confusion in
> the press and by the authorities about whether people could be
> prevented from helping themselves to the flotsam which was washed up
> on the beaches at Branscombe . Many people took advantage of the
> confusion and helped themselves to the cargo. This included many BMW
> motorbikes and empty wine casks as well as bags of disposable nappies
> ( diapers ). [ 10 ] The legal position under the Merchant Shipping Act
> 1995 is that any such finds and recovery must be reported within 28
> days to the Receiver of Wreck . [ 11 ] Failure to do so is an offence
> under the Merchant Shipping Act and can result in a criminal record
> for theft by finding . [ 12 ] After several days, the police and
> Receiver of Wreck, in conjunction with the landowner and the
> contracted salvors , established a cordon to prevent access to the
> beach. [ 13 ] A similar situation occurred after the wreck of the MV
> Cita in 1997.
> Historic wrecks (often but not always defined as being more than 50
> years of age) are often protected from pillaging and looting through
> national laws protecting cultural heritage. [ 14 ] Internationally
> they may be protected by a State ratifying the Unesco Convention on
> the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage . In this case
> pillaging is not allowed.
> An important international convention aiming at the protection of
> underwater cultural heritage (including shipwrecks) is the Convention
> on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. [ 15 ] The 2001
> UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural
> Heritage represents the international community's response to the
> increasing looting and destruction of underwater cultural heritage. It
> forms part of a group of UNESCO standard setting instruments regarding
> the domain of cultural heritage, encompassing seven conventions
> adopted by UNESCO Member States, which constitute a coherent and
> complementary body guaranteeing a complete protection of all forms of
> cultural heritage.
> The UNESCO 2001 Convention is an international treaty aimed
> exclusively at the protection of underwater cultural heritage and the
> facilitation of international cooperation in this regard. It does not
> change sovereignty rights of States or regulate the ownership of
> wrecks or submerged ruins.
> Notable salvage of shipwrecks
> In 2011, the most valuable cargo of a sunken shipwreck was identified
> near the western edge of the Celtic Sea . This World War II era
> sinking of the SS Gairsoppa led to a treasure almost three miles deep.
> [ 16 ]
> ^ a b Scurvy, Death and Cannibalism (internet video). Shipwreck Central.
> 2007 .
> ^ a b Arango, Tim (2007-09-11). "Curse of the $500 million sunken
> treasure" . Retrieved 2009-09-19 .
> ^ Parker, AJ (1981). "Stratification and contamination in ancient
> Mediterranean shipwrecks.". The International Journal of Nautical
> Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 10 : 309–335.
> ^ "Ethics in Underwater Archaeology" . knol.google.com. Retrieved
> 2010-12-13 .
> ^ For example, under English law the former were dealt with under
> rules relating to things found on land, the latter were dealt with
> under Admiralty jurisdiction.
> ^ For example, the US Abandoned Shipwrecks Act 1987 and the Spanish
> Estatuto No 60/62, 24 December 1962
> ^ Robinson v Western Australian Museum (1977) 51 ALJR 806 at 820-821,
> although significantly the court held that it had not been abandoned
> despite the fact the ship, the Gilt Dragon , was lost in 1656.
> ^ N. Rt. 346 (1970 ND 107), per Eckhoff J. ( Supreme Court of Norway
> ), "It is possible that an owner's inactivity over a long period of
> time, taking into account the circumstances, can be sufficient reason
> for considering that the proprietary right to the wrecked vessel has
> been relinquished. ... [But] inactivity over a certain number of years
> cannot in itself be conclusive."
> ^ In Treasure Salvors Inc. v Unidentified Wreck  AMC 1404,
>  AMC 1857 relating to the Atocha the courts treated the wreck
> and cargo as abandoned, arguing it would be an "absurd fiction" to
> regard a centuries-old shipwreck as still owned by the original owner.
> But in Columbus America Discovery Groupo v Unidentified Wreck 
> AMC 2409, (1992) 337 LMNL 1 the courts were prepared to uphold the
> claims of the original insurers to the cargo subject to their
> providing the necessary proof, which they were unable to do.
> ^ "UK | England | Devon | Napoli 'scavenging' beach to open" . BBC
> News. 2007-03-14 . Retrieved 2009-09-19 .
> ^ "BBC Radio World Service Broadcast, "What Lies Beneath" First
> broadcast Friday 22 August 2008" . Bbc.co.uk. 2008-08-22 . Retrieved
> 2009-09-19 .
> ^ "UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural
> Heritage" . Retrieved 2009-09-19 .
> ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. SS Gairsoppa recovery . Topic ed.P.Saundry.
> Ed.-in-chief CJCleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for
> Science and the Environment, Washington DC
> See also
> Shipwreck on a shore near Gytheio , Greece .
> The ferry Assalama wrecked off of Tarfaya , Morocco .
> Shipwreck (accident)
> Hulk (ship)
> Abandoned Shipwrecks Act
> Flotsam and jetsam
> Sinking ships for wreck diving sites
> Underwater archaeology
> Wreck diving
> External links
> Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Shipwrecks
> WRECKSITE Worldwide free database of + 105.000 wrecks with history,
> maritime charts and GPS positions (English) (German) (French) (Dutch)
> UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural
> More than 3 million shipwrecks rest beneath the world's waters
> Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime Program (LAMP), St. Augustine, Florida
> National Underwater and Marine Agency
> Florida Shipwrecks: 300 years of Maritime History, a National Park
> Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
> Straits of Mackinac Shipwreck Preserve
> BSAC List of wrecks on the UK South coast with GPS co-ords
> Website of The Elizabethan wreck off the island of Alderney, Channel
> Above and Underwater virtual tour of a ship (the Buccaneer) sank in
> 2010 in Lake Michigan as an artificial reef
> The Sea Hunt Case : An Extraordinary Legal Fiction
> Talk-it mailing list
> Talk-it a openstreetmap.org
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